|An account of what there is (e.g., what kinds of
objects, what kinds of forces, what kinds of laws of nature, etc.)
|The branch of philosophy dealing with how things
really are (which includes ontology – what kind of stuff there really is).
|The branch of philosophy dealing with what we can
know and how we can come to know it.
|Having to do with knowledge or knowing.
|Acting for good reasons. (We might need to
provide a further account of what exactly counts as a “good reason”.)
|(Of a scientific theory) Not giving
rise to contradictory conclusions (P and not-P).
|(Of a scientific theory) Matches all
the empirical data. (Weaker sense: Matches all the empirical
data collected so far. Stronger sense: Matches all the
empirical data, including data yet to be collected or observed.)
|The view that scientific theories aim to give a literally
true account of what kind of stuff is in the world, how that stuff evolves
over time, and how that stuff interacts.
|The disbelief in the mind-independent existence of
a class of entities.
|The claim that our scientific theories do not
need to aim at telling a literally true story of what the world is like.
|A claim about how things are.
|A claim about how things ought to be (regardless
of how they actually are).
|Having to do with how things seem to a particular
|Having to do with how things actually are.
Something any person could see, regardless of who they are.
|The view that there is no single or objectively special
set of standards entitled to govern a domain of practice.
|An impressive achievement which inspires people and
provides a basis for further work; or, an achievement + a body of work based
on the achievement taken to give insight into some of the workings of the
world (we could call this an exemplar); or all of the above + shared
values of the scientists working within a paradigm.
|Normal science tradition:
|A paradigm-guided body of work.
|A puzzle which consistently resists solution.
|A period of instability generated by the persistent
failure of the best people in the field to solve the puzzles they’re trying